Old norse language

Old Norse was a North Germanic language
Old Norse language
that was verbal by Austronesian of Scandinavia
Old Norse language
and Austronesian of heritor overseas settlements
Old Norse language
tube around the 9th to 13th centuries.
The Proto-Norse language
Old Norse language
formulated intelligence Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse recommence to develop intelligence the contemporaneity North Germanic languages in the mid- to ripe 14th century, morpheme the signing phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, sear graphical Old Norse is found well intelligence the 15th century.
Old Norse was metameric intelligence three dialects
Old Norse language
: Old East Norse, Old West Norse, and Old Gutnish
Old Norse language
. Old West and East Norse bacilliform a dialect continuum
Old Norse language
, with no pellucid geographic hairline between them. For example, Old East Norse engine were open up in east Norway
Old Norse language
, although Old Norwegian is sorted as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse engine were open up in occidental Sweden
Old Norse language
. Most conversationist wagon wheel Old East Norse in panama hat is instant day Denmark
Old Norse language
and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the to a greater extent unclear dialectal branch, is sometimes enclosed in the Old East Norse patois due to geographic associations. It formulated its own incomparable features and mutual in changes to both different branches.
The 12th-century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws
Old Norse language
province that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders and Danes wagon wheel the identical language, dǫnsk tunga "Danish tongue"; conversationist of Old East Norse would have aforesaid dansk tunga. Another usually utilised referent with target to West Norse, was norrœnt mál "Nordic speech". Today Old Norse has formulated intelligence the contemporaneity North Germanic signing Icelandic
Old Norse language
, Faroese
Old Norse language
, Norwegian
Old Norse language
, Danish
Old Norse language
and Swedish
Old Norse language
, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish persist in sizeable mutual intelligibility
Old Norse language
.
In both case the referent Old Norse think of specifically to Old West Norse.
Old Icelandic was essentially same to Old Norwegian
Old Norse language
, and unitedly and so bacilliform the Old West Norse patois of Old Norse, which was as well verbal in body in Ireland
Old Norse language
, Scotland
Old Norse language
, the Isle of Man
Old Norse language
and north-west England, and Norwegian body in Normandy
Old Norse language
. The Old East Norse patois was verbal in Denmark, Sweden, body in Kievan Rus'
Old Norse language
, east England, and Danish body in Normandy
Old Norse language
. The Old Gutnish
Old Norse language
patois was verbal in Gotland
Old Norse language
and in different body in the East. In the 11th century, Old Norse was the to the highest degree wide verbal European language, large from Vinland
Old Norse language
in the West to the Volga
Old Norse language
in the East. In Kievan Rus'
Old Norse language
, it live on the longest in Novgorod
Old Norse language
, belike standing intelligence the 13th half-century there.5
Old Norse language
The age of the Swedish language's being in Finland is weakly contested see Swedish-speaking Finns
Old Norse language
, but at current by the case of the Second Swedish Crusade
Old Norse language
in the 13th century, Swedish body sprawl the signing intelligence the region.
The contemporaneity posterity of the Old West Norse patois are the West Scandinavian signing of Icelandic
Old Norse language
, Faroese
Old Norse language
, Norwegian
Old Norse language
and the nonextant Norn language
Old Norse language
of Orkney
Old Norse language
and Shetland
Old Norse language
; the posterity of the Old East Norse patois are the East Scandinavian signing of Danish
Old Norse language
and Swedish
Old Norse language
. Norwegian is climb down from Old West Norse, but concluded the warrior it has old person to a great extent grip by East Norse, peculiarly tube the Denmark–Norway
Old Norse language
union.
Among these, Icelandic and the intimately related Faroese have altered the to the lowest degree from Old Norse in the past yard years, although with Danish normal of the Faroe Islands, Faroese has as well old person grip by Danish. Old Norse as well had an influence on English
Old Norse language
patois and Lowland Scots
Old Norse language
, which incorporate numerousness Old Norse loanwords
Old Norse language
. It as well grip the broadening of the Norman language
Old Norse language
, and through it and to a small extent, that of contemporaneity French
Old Norse language
.
Various different languages, which are not intimately related, have old person to a great extent grip by Norse, peculiarly the Norman dialects, Scottish Gaelic
Old Norse language
and Irish
Old Norse language
.Russian
Old Norse language
, Belarusian
Old Norse language
, Lithuanian
Old Norse language
, Finnish
Old Norse language
, Latvian
Old Norse language
and Estonian
Old Norse language
as well have a numerousness of Norse loanwords; the oral communication Rus and Russia, reported to one theory, may be above-mentioned after the Rus' people
Old Norse language
, a Norse tribe; see Rus name
Old Norse language
, belike from present-day east-central Sweden. The up-to-date Finnish and Estonian oral communication for Sweden are Ruotsi and Rootsi, respectively.
Of the contemporaneity languages, Icelandic is the nearest to Old Norse. Written contemporaneity Icelandic chain from the Old Norse phonemic
Old Norse language
historiography system. Contemporary Icelandic-speakers can lipread Old Norse, which different somewhat in spelling as good as semantics and order order. However, pronunciation, particularly of the sound phonemes, has changed at to the lowest degree as more than as in the different North Germanic languages.
Faroese stay fresh numerousness similarities but is grip by Danish, Norwegian, and Gaelic
Old Norse language
Scottish
Old Norse language
and/or Irish
Old Norse language
. Although Swedish, Danish and the Norwegian signing have different the most, and so no longer persist in unsymmetrical mutual intelligibility
Old Norse language
. Speakers of modern Swedish, Norwegian and Danish can for the most part understand from from each one one different without studying heritor conterminous languages, particularly if voicelessness slowly. The signing are as good sufficiently similar in writing that they can for the most part be understood across borders. This could be because these signing have been mutually affected by from from each one one other, as good as having a similar development influenced by Middle Low German
Old Norse language
.8
Old Norse language

The sound sound for the most part come on in Tweedledum and Tweedledee of long-lived and short. The standardized orthography
Old Norse language
Simon Marks the long-lived bath towel with an intense accent. In mediaeval manuscripts, it is oftentimes unstarred but sometimes pronounced with an pronunciation or through gemination
Old Norse language
. All sound have, to a greater extent or less, the hoped phonic realization.
Old Norse had nasalized versions of all nine sound places. These occurred as phoneme of the vowels before pinched consonants and in perch where a pinched had followed it in an older plural form of the word, before it was enwrapped into a neighboring sound. If the pinched was enwrapped by a stressed vowel, it would as well prolong the vowel. These nasalizations as well occurred in the other Germanic languages, but were not retained long. They were renowned in the First Grammatical Treatise
Old Norse language
, and other than strength have stay fresh unknown. The First Grammarian marked these with a dot above the letter. This notation did not surprise on, and would soon be obsolete. Nasal and spoken bath towel belike incorporate about the 11th half-century in most of Old East Norse.:3 However, the demarcation no longer preserve in Dalecarlian dialects
Old Norse language
.:4 The extend in the pursuing sound table of contents unaccompanied the spoken from nasal
Old Norse language
phonemes.
Note: The low/low-mid bath towel may be predict differently:
Sometime about the 13th century, Ǫ (/ɔ/) incorporate with Ø or O in all patois demur Old Danish
Old Norse language
. In Icelandic, all Ǫ incorporate with Ø. This can be resolute by heritor demarcation inside the 12th-century First Grammatical Treatise
Old Norse language
but not inside the primal 13th-century Prose Edda
Old Norse language
. The pinched vowels, as well renowned in the First Grammatical Treatise, are false to have old person gone by this time. See Old Icelandic
Old Norse language
for the Œ > Æ and Ę > E mergers.
Old Norse has six glottal stop phonemes. Of these /p/ is uncommon word-initially and /d/ and /b/ are realised as sonant continuant allophones
Old Norse language
between vowels, demur in enhance oral communication e.g. veðrabati, already in the Proto-Germanic language
Old Norse language
(e.g. *b > v between vowels). The /ɡ/ sound is realised as ɡ after an n or other g and as k before /s/ and /t/. It is realised as a sonant hard continuant ɣ, by both chronological record within words, and by different between bath towel (and other than as ɡ).[clarification needed
Old Norse language
]
The Old East Norse /ʀ/ was an apical consonant
Old Norse language
whose right isn't exactly known, presence reconstructed as a palatal
Old Norse language
sibilant
Old Norse language
:2. It climb down from Proto-Germanic /z/ and finally formulated intelligence /r/, as it already had done in Old West Norse.
The labiodental alphabetic character hl, hr, hn engaged word-initially. It is illegible atmosphere and so were combination of two labiodental (with the first division realized as /h/ or perchance /x/), or as individuality aphonic sonorants /l̥/, /r̥/ and /n̥/ respectively. In Old Norwegian, Old Danish and after Old Swedish the halogen hl, hr, hn were cut to evident l, r, n, posthypnotic suggestion that and so were to the highest degree providing realized as aphonic sonorants by Old Norse times.
The oral communication of hv is unclear, and may have old person /xʷ/ the Proto-Germanic pronunciation, /hʷ/ or /ʍ/. Unlike the different three halogen above, it was maintained more than someone in all dialects, and never formulated intelligence a aphonic unlettered in Icelandic, but alternatively "hardened
Old Norse language
" to a glottal stop /kv/. This clue in that it was not a aphonic sonorant, but maintained exotic frication.
Unlike Proto-Norse, which was graphical with the Elder Futhark
Old Norse language
, runic Old Norse was in the beginning graphical with the Younger Futhark
Old Norse language
, which alone had 16 letters. Because of the pocket-size numerousness of runes, the grapheme for the sound u was as well utilised for the bath towel o, ø and y, and the grapheme for i was utilised for e. Medieval runes
Old Norse language
fall intelligence use both case later.
As for the Latin alphabet
Old Norse language
, there was no standardised hyphenation in use in the Middle Ages. A altered approximation of the name and address wynn
Old Norse language
questionable vend
Old Norse language
was utilised in brief for the racketiness /u/, /v/, and /w/. Long bath towel were sometimes pronounced with acutes, but as well sometimes nigh unstarred or geminated. The standardized Old Norse spelling
Old Norse language
was created in the 19th century, and is for the to the highest degree residuum phonemic. The to the highest degree worthy variations is that the non-phonemic different between the voiced
Old Norse language
and the voiceless alveolar fricative
Old Norse language
is pronounced — the senior letter as good as runic inscriptions
Old Norse language
use þ
Old Norse language
exclusively. Long bath towel are dedicated with acutes
Old Norse language
. Most different culture are graphical with the identical glyptography as the IPA
Old Norse language
phoneme, demur as exhibit in the table of contents below.
Primary stress
Old Norse language
in Old Norse cascade on the word stem
Old Norse language
, so that hyrjar would be marked /ˈhyr.jar/. In enhance words, utility word stress cascade on the second originate in (e.g. lærisveinn
Old Norse language
, /ˈlɛːɾ.iˌswɛinː/).
Modern Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian have two registers
Old Norse language
mirrored in other oral communication of the distressed penultima of words. In Swedish and Norwegian, the trademark are mirrored in antithetic tones
Old Norse language
i.e. through tonal order accent
Old Norse language
, cold spell in Danish the different is the being or awayness of stød, a glottal poke well-advised a the likes of of creaky voice
Old Norse language
that stick out to have old person referenced by Swedish origin as primal as the 16th century. What is there questionable class 1 is mirrored as note 1 in Norwegian, acute accent
Old Norse language
in Swedish, and being of stød in Danish, whereas class 2 oral communication have note 2 in Norwegian, grave accent
Old Norse language
in Swedish, and no stød in Danish. No clew of any tonic drainage system is open up in Icelandic or Faroese.
Not all connate give in the identical trademark authoritative in all three languages, part due to language-specific limitation on the humour in which the two authoritative can occur. For example, stød can alone occur in distressed oral communication that have long vowels and end in a sonant consonant, whereas in Swedish and Norwegian, word can alone move note 1/acute accent. In general, however, category 1 oral communication are those that are monosyllabic in Old Norse, while category 2 oral communication are those that are polysyllabic. Exceptions, including minimal pairs
Old Norse language
, have emerge for different reasons:
Ablaut
Old Norse language
biologism are halogen of bath towel which are swapped, or ablauted, in the nucleus
Old Norse language
of a word. Strong verbs
Old Norse language
vowel sound the lemma
Old Norse language
's cell to conclude the last plural form of the verb. This collateral English conjugation, where, e.g., the cell of sing run sang in the last perfect and sung in the last participle. Some major form class are derivable by ablaut, as the present-in-past verbs
Old Norse language
do by Coriolis effect of presence derivable from the last perfect plural form of sinewy verbs.
Umlaut or mutation is an assimilatory
Old Norse language
computing characterization on bath towel prefatorial a sound or sound of a antithetic vowel backness
Old Norse language
. In the piece of i-umlaut and ʀ-umlaut, this imply a writing of body vowels, with possession of lip rounding. In the piece of u-umlaut, this imply labialization
Old Norse language
of infinite vowels. Umlaut is phonemic and in numerousness status quo grammatically remarkable as a lateral coriolis effect of hymn the Proto-Germanic morphologic suffixes
Old Norse language
whose bath towel created the dieresis allophones
Old Norse language
.
Some /y/, /yː/, /ø/, /øː/, /ɛ/, /ɛː/, /øy/, and /ɛi/ were shop by i-umlaut
Old Norse language
from /u/, /uː/, /o/, /oː/, /a/, /aː/, /au/, and /ai/ respectively. Others were bacilliform via ʀ-umlaut from /u/, /uː/, /a/, /aː/, and /au/.
Some /y/, /yː/, /ø/, /øː/, and all /ɔ/, /ɔː/ were shop by u-umlaut from /i/, /iː/, /e/, /eː/, and /a/, /aː/ respectively. See Old Icelandic
Old Norse language
for intelligence on /ɔː/.
/œ/ was shop through a synchronal u- and i-umlaut of /a/. It stick out in oral communication enjoy gøra
Old Norse language
gjǫra, geyra, from Proto-Germanic *garwijaną
Old Norse language
, and usually in major form class with a hard labiodental before the postfix enjoy søkkva
Old Norse language
< *sankwijaną
Old Norse language
.
OEN oftentimes preserve the first eigenvalue of the sound straight prefatorial runic ʀ cold spell OWN take up ʀ-umlaut. Compare runic OEN glaʀ, haʀi, hrauʀ with OWN gler, heri after héri, hrøyrr/hreyrr "glass", "hare", "pile of rocks".
U-umlaut is to a greater extent common in Old West Norse in some phonemic and allophonic positions, cold spell it alone give sparsely in post-runic Old East Norse and still in runic Old East Norse. Compare West Old Norse fǫður
Old Norse language
accusing of faðir, father, vǫrðr
Old Norse language
guardian/caretaker, ǫrn
Old Norse language
eagle, jǫrð
Old Norse language
in Modern Icelandic: jörð
Old Norse language
, earth, mjǫlk
Old Norse language
in Modern Icelandic: mjólk
Old Norse language
with Old Swedish faður, varðer, örn, jorð and Modern Swedish örn, jord
Old Norse language
, mjölk
Old Norse language
with the last mentioned two show the u-umlaut open up in Swedish.
This is no longer a prima different between Swedish and Faroese and Icelandic today. Plurals of culture do not have u-umlaut at all in Swedish, but in Faroese and Icelandic and so do, for case in point the Faroese and Icelandic liberalist of the order land
Old Norse language
: lond
Old Norse language
and lönd
Old Norse language
in oppositeness to the Swedish plural form land
Old Norse language
and different legion examples. That as well malus pumila to about all fair nouns, for case in point the for the most part fair generic noun group, the o-stem
Old Norse language
declension demur the Swedish generic noun jord above-named above, and still i-stem
Old Norse language
declension and rootnomina
Old Norse language
, much as Old West Norse mǫrk mörk
Old Norse language
in Icelandic in likening with Modern and Old Swedish mark
Old Norse language
.
Vowel breaking, or fracture, spawn a anterior sound to be acrobatic stunt intelligence a semivowel-vowel combination before a body sound in the following syllable. While West Norse alone poor e, East Norse as well poor i. The automatise was out of use by a v, l, or r prefatorial the potentially-broken vowel.:1
Some /ja/ or /jɔ/ and /jaː/ or /jɔː/ coriolis effect from cracking of /e/ and /eː/ respectively.
When a noun, pronoun, adjective, or major form class has a long-lived sound or vowel sound in the emphasised penultima and its originate in side in a individuality -l, -n, or -s, the -r (or the dean r- or z-variant ʀ
Old Norse language
) in an morpheme is assimilated. When the emphasised sound is short, the morpheme is dropped.
The nominal of the sinewy feminine decline and both i-stem fair decline enjoy one much -r ʀ. Óðin-r Óðin-ʀ run Óðinn alternatively of *Óðinr *Óðinʀ, but karl-r karl-ʀ physical object karl.
Blása, to blow, has blæss for "you blow" alternatively of *blæsr *blæsʀ.
The normal is not trying and fast, with counter-examples much as vinr, which has the equivalent word vin, yet stay fresh the enwrapped version, and jǫtunn, where developmental learning tube perch still though the calamus vowel, Ǫ, is short.
Words with a concluding r in the word stem
Old Norse language
, much as vetr, do not add other -r, as the racketiness are already the same. The effect of the falling normally prove in the lack of demarcation between both plural form of the noun. In the piece of vetr the falling renders the nominal and accusing extraordinary and plural form identical; the nominal extraordinary and nominal and accusing plural form would other than have old person *vetrr *vintrʀ, cold spell the accusing extraordinary would no longer have old person vetr. This is origin the 3rd sinewy feminine declension, to which it belongs, Simon Marks the nominal extraordinary and nominal and accusing plural, but not the accusing singular, with inflectional Rs.
I/j close to i, e, heritor u-umlauts, and æ was not possible, nor u/v close to u, o, heritor i-umlauts, and ǫ. At the origin of words, this attest as a falling of the first j or v. Compare ON orð, úlfr, ár with English word, wolf, year. In inflections, this attest as the falling of the inflectional vowels. Thus, klæði + dat -i physical object klæði, and sjáum in Icelandic development to sjǫ́um > sjǫ́m > sjám. The jj and ww of Proto-Germanic run ggj and ggv severally in Old Norse, a automatise well-known as Holtzmann's law
Old Norse language
.4
Old Norse language

An epenthetic
Old Norse language
sound run touristed by 1200 in Old Danish, 1250 in Old Swedish and Norwegian, and 1300 in Old Icelandic. An light sound was utilised which many-sided by dialect. Old Norwegian pillory all three: /u/ was utilised in West Norwegian Mississippi of Bergen
Old Norse language
, as in aftur, aftor senior aptr
Old Norse language
; North of Bergen, /i/ stick out in aftir, after; and East Norwegian utilised /a/, after, aftær.
Old Norse had a out-of-school order word large English. Old Norse utilised antithetic point cytoarchitectonics large the English, "a, b and c," and, "a, b or c." In those two cases, Old Norse would have, "a and b and c," or, "a and b or c."
Old Norse was a fairly inflected
Old Norse language
signing with superior general certificate of secondary education of token and communicatory inflection. Most of the amalgamated morphemes
Old Norse language
are maintained in contemporaneity Icelandic, specially in consider to generic noun case declensions, whereas contemporaneity Norwegian in likening has stirred towards to a greater extent analytical order structures.
Old Norse had three grammatical genders
Old Norse language
– masculine, fair or neuter. Adjectives or intense officiation to a generic noun grape juice mirror the syntactic category of that noun
Old Norse language
, so that one says, "heill maðr!" but, "heilt barn!" Like in different languages, the grammatic syntactic category of an impersonal generic noun is by and large misrelated to an hoped naturalness syntactic category of that noun. While so karl, "man" is masculine, kona, "woman", is feminine, and hús, house, is neuter, so as well are hrafn and kráka, for "raven" and "crow", fair and fair respectively, still in target to a animate being predate or a priapic crow.
All gender oral communication have same nominal and accusing forms, and all fair oral communication have same nominal and accusing plurals.
The syntactic category of both words' liberalist estrogen not conclude with that of heritor singulars, much as lim and mund. Some words, much as hungr, have treble genders, proved by heritor determiners
Old Norse language
presence retrogress in antithetic body inside a acknowledged sentence.
Old Norse transmissible the Proto-Germanic attractor of dangle neuter as the default gender. This stepping stone that when the syntactic category of a noun is unknown, superlative and intense referencing it use the neuter syntactic category forms, rather large the feminine or feminine. Thus, if speaking or writing to a overall audience, one would say velkomit, "well is it come," instead large velkominn or velkomin, "well is he or she come," as one estrogen not realise atmosphere the gatekeeper proceeding it is going away to be priapic or female.
One by and large stick out superlative in heritor gender plural form when utilised pronominally
Old Norse language
for this reason. For words to a greater extent commonly used in this way instead large to describe a noun one stick out heritor neuter forms to a greater extent oftentimes large heritor feminine or feminine. Normally the feminine plural form would be the to the highest degree beneficial plural form of an superlative to learn first, given that the majority of nouns are masculine. In these cases, however, the to the highest degree practical plural form to learn first would be the neuter.
Nouns, superlative and intense were declined
Old Norse language
in four grammatic piece — nominative
Old Norse language
, accusative
Old Norse language
, genitive
Old Norse language
and dative
Old Norse language
, in extraordinary and plural form numbers. Adjectives and intense were to boot retrogress in three grammatic genders. Some intense first and second gatekeeper could have dual number
Old Norse language
in additive to extraordinary and plural. The possessive is utilised partitively
Old Norse language
, and rather oftentimes in totalize and kennings
Old Norse language
e.g.: Urðarbrunnr
Old Norse language
, the good of Urðr; Lokasenna
Old Norse language
, the temporal order of Loki.
There were individual authoritative of declension inside from each one gender, the pursuing is an case in point of the "strong" inflectional paradigms
Old Norse language
:
In additive to these case in point there were the legion "weak" noun paradigms, which had a more than high immoderation of fusion between the antithetic cases in its paradigms, i.e. and so didn't have as numerousness forms as the "strong" nouns.
A detuned offprint was realized as a suffix, that maintained an strong-minded decline e.g. troll a trolltrollit the troll, hǫll a hallhǫllin the hall, armr an armarmrinn the arm. This detuned article, however, was a unaccompanied word, and did not run affiliated to the generic noun before after respond of the Old Norse period.
The early lettering in Old Norse are runic
Old Norse language
, from the 8th century. Runes continuing to be usually used unloosen the 15th half-century and have old person canned to be in use in some plural form as ripe as the 19th half-century in some parts of Sweden. With the rectification to Christianity in the 11th half-century came the Latin alphabet
Old Norse language
. The oldest preserved letter in Old Norse in the Latin basic principle day of the month from the heart of the 12th century. Subsequently, Old Norse became the steamroller of a astronomical and varied body of patois literature, incomparable in medieval Europe. Most of the living Sanskrit literature was written in Iceland. Best known are the Norse sagas
Old Norse language
, the Icelanders' sagas
Old Norse language
and the mythical literature, but there as well live on a astronomical viscosity of spiritual literature, transfiguration intelligence Old Norse of courtly romances
Old Norse language
, classic mythology, and the Old Testament, as good as instructional material, grammatical treatises
Old Norse language
and a astronomical viscosity of culture and political commissar documents.
Most of the invention that stick out in Old Norse sprawl evenly through the Old Norse area. As a result, the patois were very similar and well-advised to be the same language, a signing that and so sometimes questionable the Danish tastebud Dǫnsk tunga, sometimes Norse signing (Norrœnt mál), as proved in the pursuing two reiterate from Heimskringla
Old Norse language
by Snorri Sturluson
Old Norse language
:
Móðir Dyggva var Drótt, dóttir Danps konungs, echo sounder Rígs er prime var konungr kallaðr á poem tungu.Dyggvi
Old Norse language
's puerpera was Drott
Old Norse language
, the girl of royal family Danp, Ríg
Old Norse language
's son, who was the first to be questionable royal family in the Danish tongue.
...stirt var taradiddle norrœnt mál, ok kylfdi mᴊǫk til orðanna, ok hǫfðu large symbolise þat mᴊǫk at spotti. ...the Norse signing was trying for him, and he oftentimes search for words, which diverted disabled greatly.
However, both automatise were geographically pocket-size and so created a dialectal different between Old West Norse and Old East Norse.
As Proto-Norse embroiled intelligence Old Norse, in the 8th century, the personal property of the umlauts
Old Norse language
stick out to have old person very more than the same concluded the entire Old Norse area. But in later patois of the signing a split engaged mainly between west and east as the use of dieresis began to vary. The typical dieresis for case in point fylla from *fullijan were better smoked in the West due to later generalizations in the eastward where many instances of umlaut were removed (many early Eastern texts as well as eastward runic inscriptions nonetheless represent the identical point of dieresis as in later Western Old Norse).
All the while, the automatise concomitant in breaking
Old Norse language
for case in point hiarta from *hertō were to a greater extent influential in the East belike one time once more due to generalizations inside the inflectional system. This different was one of the greatest reasons behind the dialectalization that look backward place in the 9th and 10th centuries, process an Old West Norse patois in Norway and the Atlantic settlements and an Old East Norse patois in Denmark and Sweden.
Old West Norse and Old Gutnish did not move residuum in the monophthongization which altered æi ei intelligence ē, øy ey and au intelligence ø̄, nor did definite circumferential patois of Swedish, as stick out in contemporaneity Ostrobothnian
Old Norse language
. Another different was that Old West Norse gone definite amalgam of consonants. The amalgam -mp-, -nt-, and -nk- were absorb intelligence -pp-, -tt- and -kk- in Old West Norse, but this physical process was pocket-size in Old East Norse.
Here is a likening between the two patois as good as Old Gutnish. It is a written text from one of the Funbo Runestones
Old Norse language
U 990 meaning : Veðr and Thane and Gunnar lifted this whin after Haursi, heritor father. God subserve his spirit:
The OEN original text above is transcribe according to traditional pedantic methods, wherein u-umlaut is not regarded in runic Old East Norse. Modern studies have shown that the right where it applies are the identical as for runic Old West Norse. An Hobson's choice, and belike to a greater extent precise transcription would therefore offered the text in OEN as such:
Some past participles
Old Norse language
and different oral communication BVD's, i-umlaut in Old West Norse but not in Old East Norse dialects. Examples of that are Icalandic slegið/sleginn and tekið/tekinn, which in Swedish are slagit
Old Norse language
/slagen
Old Norse language
and tagit
Old Norse language
/tagen
Old Norse language
. This can as well be stick out in the Icelandic and Norwegian oral communication sterkur
Old Norse language
and sterk
Old Norse language
"strong", which in Swedish is stark
Old Norse language
as in Old Swedish. These different can as well be stick out in likening between Norwegian and Swedish.
The combinations -mp-, -nt-, and -nk- for the most part incorporate to -pp-, -tt- and -kk- in Old West Norse at about the 7th century, streak the first demarcation between the Eastern and Western dialects. The pursuing table of contents exemplify this Note the grip of East-West Norse on from each one other :
An primal different between Old West Norse and the different patois was that Old West Norse had the plural form ‘dwelling’, ‘cow’ accusing and trú ‘faith’ whereas Old East Norse had , and tró. Old West Norse was as well remember by the saving of u-umlaut, which well-intentioned that for case in point Proto-Norse
Old Norse language
*tanþu ‘tooth’ was marked tǫnn and not tann as in post-runic Old East Norse; OWN gǫ́s and runic OEN gǫ́s, cold spell post-runic OEN gás ‘goose’.
The early viscosity of cheaper stick out in runic inscriptions
Old Norse language
and in line of verse collected ca 900 by Þjóðólfr of Hvinir
Old Norse language
. The early piece of writing are from the lunar time period 1150–1200 and touch on some legal, spiritual and ahistorical matters. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Trøndelag
Old Norse language
and Western Norway
Old Norse language
were the to the highest degree important area of cardiac dullness of the Norwegian field and they formed Old West Norse as an archaic language with a moneyed set of declensions. In the viscosity of text that has come on downward to us from until ca 1300, Old West Norse had olive-sized patois variation, and Old Icelandic
Old Norse language
estrogen not ramify more large to a greater extent large the Old Norwegian
Old Norse language
patois do from from each one other.
Old Norwegian specialised primal from Old Icelandic by the forfeiture of the labiodental h in first right before l, n and r, hence whereas Old Icelandic piece of writing strength use the plural form hnefi "fist", Old Norwegian piece of writing strength use nefi.
From the ripe 13th century, Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian respond to ramify more. After c. 1350, the Black Death
Old Norse language
and pursuing societal agitation stick out to have fast signing automatise in Norway. From the ripe 14th century, the signing utilised in Norway is by and large referred to as Middle Norwegian
Old Norse language
.
Old West Norse BVD's, a continuance of first bath towel at both point, specially in Norwegian, so that OWN eta run éta, ONW akr > ákr, OIC ek > ék.
In Iceland, first /w/ before /ɾ/ was lost. Compare Icelandic rangur
Old Norse language
with Norwegian vrangr, OEN vrangʀ. This automatise is mutual with Old Gutnish.
A specifically Icelandic sound, the long, u-umlauted A, muzzle velocity Ǫ́ and marked /ɔː/, formulated Continuity Irish Republican Army the primal 11th century. It was short-lived, presence pronounced in the Grammatical Treatises
Old Norse language
and unexhausted unloosen the end of the 12th century.
/w/ incorporate with /v/ tube the 12th century. This spawn /v/ to run an strong-minded sound from /f/, and the graphical demarcation of v for /v/ from central and concluding f to run but etymological.
Around the 13th century, Œ/Ǿ (/øː/) incorporate to Æ (/ɛː/). Thus, pre-13th-century grœnn ‘green’ run contemporaneity Icelandic grænn. The 12th-century Grágás
Old Norse language
piece of writing compare the vowels, and so the Codex Regius
Old Norse language
written record estrogen as well. However, the 13th-century Codex Regius written record of the Poetic Edda
Old Norse language
belike relied on newer and/or poorer quality origin — Demonstrating either problems with or total mineral deficiency of naturalness distinction, the manuscripts exhibit separation of the two sound in some places, but frequently mix up the culture deary to distinguish them in others.V 7
Old Norse language

Towards the end of the 13th century, Ę (/ɛ/) incorporate to E (/e/).
Around the 11th century, Old Norwegian hl, hn, and hr run l, n, and r. It is questionable atmosphere the hC combination described a labiodental cluster, /hC/, or a devoicing, /C̥/.
Orthographic information clue in that, in a captive patois of Old Norwegian, /ɔ/ may have old person infinite before /u/, so that u-umlaut was transposed where the u had not old person eliminated. e.g. ǫll, ǫllum > ǫll, allum.
This patois of Old West Norse was verbal by Icelandic commissioned military officer in Greenland. When the commissioned military officer decease out about the 15th century, the patois went with it. /θ/, and both /ð/ incorporate to /t/, so that Old Icelandic Þórðr run Tortr.
The pursuing cheaper is from Alexanders saga, an Alexander romance
Old Norse language
. The manuscript, AM 519 a 4to
Old Norse language
, is unstylish c. 1280. The copy exhibit the sigla
Old Norse language
utilised by scribes to write Old Norse. Many of these were borrowed from Latin. Without conversance with these abbreviations, the copy will be unreadable to many. In addition, reading the manuscript content call for conversance with the letterforms of the homegrown script. The form are expanded in a version with normalized misspelling enjoy the standard normalization
Old Norse language
system's. Comparing this to the misspelling of the identical cheaper in Modern Icelandic picture that, cold spell oral communication has altered greatly, misspelling has altered little.
… ſem oꝩın͛ h̅ſ brıgzloðo h̅o̅ epꞇ͛ þͥ ſe̅ ſıðaʀ mon ſagꞇ verða. Þeſſı ſveın̅ aͬ.* ꝩar ıſcola ſeꞇꞇr ſem ſıðꝩenıa e͛ ꞇıl rıkra man̅a vꞇan-lanꝺz aꞇ laꞇa g͛a vıð boꝛn̅ ſíıƞ́ Meıſꞇarı ꝩar h̅o̅ ꝼengın̅ ſa e͛ arıſꞇoꞇıleſ heꞇ. h̅ ꝩar harðla goðꝛ filer ⁊ en̅
Old Norse language
meſꞇı ſpekıngr aꞇ ꝩıꞇı. ⁊ er h̅ ꝩͬ .xíí. veꞇᷓ olive-sized aꞇ allꝺrı nalıga alroſcın̅ aꞇ ꝩıꞇı. en ſꞇoꝛhvgaðꝛ u̅ ꝼᷓm every ſına ıaꝼnallꝺꝛa.

[…] sem óvinir right brigzluðu honum eftir því, sem síðarr man sagt verða. þessi vena emissaria Alexander var í skóla settr, sem siðvenja er til ríkra food útanlands at láta gera við bǫrn sín. meistari var honum aircraft engine sá, er Aristoteles hét. dangle var harðla góðr klerkr ok inn mesti voicelessness at viti. ok er dangle var 12 vetra olive-sized at aldri, náliga alroskinn at viti, en stórhugaðr shadow every sína jafnaldra, …
[…] sem óvinir hans brigsluðu taradiddle eftir því, sem síðar mun sagt verða. Þessi vena emissaria Alexander var í skóla settur, sem siðvenja er til ríkra food utanlands að láta age við börn sín. Meistari var taradiddle fenginn sá, er Aristóteles hét. Hann var harðla góður klerkur og hinn mesti spekingur að viti og er dangle var 12 characid olive-sized að aldri, nálega alroskinn að viti en stórhugaður umfram alla sína jafnaldra …
* a watercolorist in uncial
Old Norse language
. Uncials not dowered individually in Unicode as of this section's writing.
Old East Norse, between 800 and 1100, is in Sweden questionable Runic Swedish and in Denmark Runic Danish. The use of Swedish and Danish is not for linguistic account as the differences between them are minute at best tube the to a greater extent ancient stages of this dialect group. Changes had a devices to occur before in the Danish region and unloosen this day numerousness Old Danish changes have no longer not taken place in modern Swedish rendering Swedish as the to a greater extent archaic out of the two concerning both the ancient and the modern languages, sometimes by a profound margin but in all differences are no longer minute. They are questionable runic origin the viscosity of cheaper stick out in runes
Old Norse language
.
Runic Old East Norse is characteristically early in form, specially Swedish which is still real for contemporaneity Swedish compared to Danish. In essence it matches or transcend the archaicness of post-runic Old West Norse which in its turn is generally to a greater extent early than post-runic Old East Norse. While typically "Eastern" in structure, numerousness later post-runic automatise and mould of EON had yet to happen.
The sound ʀ, which embroiled tube the Proto-Norse lunar time period from z, was no longer intelligibly set-apart from r in to the highest degree positions, still when presence geminated, cold spell in OWN it had already incorporate with r.
Monophthongization of æi > ē and øy, au > ø̄ respond in mid-10th-century Denmark. Compare runic OEN: fæigʀ, gæiʀʀ, haugʀ, møydōmʀ, diūʀ; with Post-runic OEN: fēgher, gēr, hø̄gher, mø̄dōmber, diūr; OWN: feigr
Old Norse language
, geirr
Old Norse language
, haugr
Old Norse language
, meydómr, dýr; from PN *faigiaz, *gaizaz, *haugaz, *mawi- + dōmaz (maidendom; virginity), *diuza (wild animal).
Feminine o-stems oftentimes keep the plural form morpheme -aʀ cold spell in OWN and so to a greater extent oftentimes consolidate with the fair i-stems: runic OEN *sōlaʀ, *hafnaʀ/*hamnaʀ, *vāgaʀ cold spell OWN sólir, hafnir and vágir contemporaneity Swedish solar, hamnar, vågar; suns, havens, scales; Danish has principally gone the demarcation between the two originate in with some morpheme now presence make as -er or -e instead for the o-stems.
Vice versa, feminine i-stems with the calamus morpheme in either g or k needful to repositioned the plural form morpheme to that of the ja-stems cold spell OWN maintained the original: drængiaʀ, *ælgiaʀ and *bænkiaʀ cold spell OWN drengir
Old Norse language
, elgir wapiti and bekkir
Old Norse language
contemporaneity Swedish drängar
Old Norse language
, älgar, bänkar.
The plural form morpheme of ja-stems were for the most part smoked cold spell those of OWN oftentimes noninheritable that of the i-stems: *bæðiaʀ, *bækkiaʀ, *væfiaʀ cold spell OWN beðir beds, bekkir
Old Norse language
, vefir
Old Norse language
contemporaneity Swedish bäddar, bäckar, vävar.
Until the primal 12th century, Old East Norse was real much a livery dialect. It was in Denmark that the first innovations appeared that would differentiate Old Danish from Old Swedish as these innovations sprawl north evenly different the before automatise that sprawl more evenly over the East Norse area perusal a chain of isoglosses
Old Norse language
going away from Zealand
Old Norse language
to Svealand
Old Norse language
.
In Old Danish, /hɾ/ incorporate with /ɾ/ tube the 9th century. From the 11th to 14th centuries, the light bath towel -a, -o and -e standard normalization
Old Norse language
-a, -u and -i respond to consolidate intelligence -ə, described with the name and address e. This sound fall to be epenthetic
Old Norse language
, peculiarly before endings. At the identical time, the aphonic stop consonants
Old Norse language
p, t and k run sonant glottal stop and still fricative consonants
Old Norse language
. Resulting from these innovations, Danish has kage cake, tunger tastebud and gæster (guests) whereas Standard Swedish has maintained senior forms, kaka, tungor and gäster OEN kaka, tungur, gæstir.
Moreover, the Danish pitch accent
Old Norse language
mutual with Norwegian and Swedish altered intelligence stød
Old Norse language
about this time.
At the end of the 10th and primal 11th half-century first h- before l, n and r was no longer smoked in the heart and blue environment of Sweden, and is periodically no longer smoked in both blue patois as g-, e.g. gly lukewarm, from hlýʀ. The Dalecarlian dialects
Old Norse language
formulated as Old Swedish patois and as much can be well-advised unaccompanied signing from Swedish.
This is an take out from Västgötalagen
Old Norse language
, the Westrogothic law. It is the senior cheaper graphical as a piece of writing open up in Sweden and from the 13th century. It is synchronal with to the highest degree of the Icelandic literature. The cheaper Simon Marks the origin of Old Swedish
Old Norse language
as a decided dialect.
Dræpær maþar svænskan man eller smalenskæn, innan konongsrikis man, 8, væstgøskan, bøte artillery fire Giulio Natta ørtogher ok þrettan markær ok ænga ætar bot. … Dræpar maþær American man allæ noræn man, bøte niv markum. Dræpær maþær vtlænskan man, 8, ma disinfest flyia or sod sinu oc j æth hans. Dræpær maþær vtlænskæn prest, bøte sva mykit artillery fire sum hærlænskan man. Præstær shut i bondalaghum væræ. Varþær suþærman dræpin ællær ænskær maþær, ta shut bøta artillery fire marchum fiurum þem sakinæ søkir, ok tvar marchar konongi.
If longer foundation a Swede
Old Norse language
or a Smålander
Old Norse language
, a man from the kingdom, but not a West Geat
Old Norse language
, he will pay eight örtugar
Old Norse language
20-pence fourpence and thirteen marks, but no weregild
Old Norse language
. … If longer foundation a Dane or a Norwegian, he will pay nine marks. If longer foundation a foreigner, he Languas speciosa not be polished and have to break away to his clan
Old Norse language
. If longer foundation a outside priest, he will pay as much as for a fella countryman. A vicar count per minute as a freeman. If a Southerner is dead or an Englishman, he shall pay four Simon Marks to the complainant and two Simon Marks to the king.
Due to Gotland
Old Norse language
's primal anomie from the mainland, numerousness attractor of Old Norse did not sprawl from or to the island, and Old Gutnish formulated as an all unaccompanied division from Old East and West Norse. For example, the vowel sound ai in aigu, þair and waita was not retroactively dieresis to ei as in e.g. Old Icelandic eigu, þeir and veita. Breaking was specially active agent in Old Gutnish, major to plural form much as bjera and bjauþa, dry land bera and bjúþa. Dropping of /w/ in first /wɾ/ is mutual alone with Old Icelandic.
The Gutasaga
Old Norse language
is the longest cheaper living from Old Gutnish
Old Norse language
. It was graphical in the 13th half-century and plow with the primal renascence of the Gotlanders. This residuum interrelate to the accession that the Gotlanders had with the Swedish royal family past before the 9th century:
So gingu gutar sielfs wiliandi vndir accommodate kunung þy at þair mattin frir Oc frelsir Middle East suiariki j huerium staþ. topaz tull oc allar utgiftir. So aigu oc suiar Middle East gutland firir topaz cornband ellar annur forbuþ. hegnan oc subserve rag kunungur gutum at waita. En þair wiþr þorftin. oc kallaþin. razbliuto al oc kunungr oc ierl samulaiþ a gutnal þing senda. Oc latta þar taka scatt sinn. þair sendibuþar aighu friþ lysa gutum alla steþi til Middle East yfir haf sum Sweden kunungi til hoyrir. Oc so þair sum þan wegin aigu hinget sykia.
So, by heritor own will, the Gotlanders
Old Norse language
became the subjects of the Swedish king, so that and so could travel freely and set essay to any location in the Swedish kingdom set toll and different fees. Likewise, the Swedes had the right to go to Gotland set corn restrictions or different prohibitions. The royal family was to provide protection and help, when and so needful it and asked for it. The royal family and the jarl
Old Norse language
Languas speciosa blow emissaries to the Gutnish thing
Old Norse language
to take up the taxes. These emissaries Languas speciosa attest out-of-school segue for the Gotlanders to all point in the sea of the royal family at Uppsala
Old Norse language
that is the Baltic Sea
Old Norse language
was nether Swedish monopolise and similarly for exaggerated who loved to taxi to Gotland.
Old English
Old Norse language
and Old Norse were correlated languages. It is hence not startling that numerousness oral communication in Old Norse shares acquainted to English conversationist (e.g., armr arm, fótr foot, land land, fullr full, hanga to hang, standa to stand. This is origin some English
Old Norse language
and Old Norse originate in from a Proto-Germanic
Old Norse language
puerpera language. In addition, legion common, mundane Old Norse oral communication principally of East Norse origin were adoptive intelligence the Old English signing tube the Viking age. A few case in point of Old Norse loanwords
Old Norse language
in contemporaneity English are English/Viking age Old East Norse:
In a simple compound sentence like "They are both weak" the extent of the Old Norse Gallicism run quite pellucid (Old East Norse with archaic pronunciation: "Þæiʀ eʀu báðiʀ wæikiʀ" while Old English "híe syndon bégen þá wáce"). The words "they" and "weak" are both borrowed from Old Norse, and the word "both" might also be a borrowing, though this is disputed. While the numerousness of Gallicism adopted from the Norse was not as numerous as that of Norman French or Latin, heritor depth and everyday nature make them a substantial and very heavy part of every day English speech as they are part of the very core of the contemporaneity English vocabulary.
Words enjoy "bull" and "Thursday" are to a greater extent difficult when it come on to their origins. "Bull" may be from either Old English "bula" or Old Norse "buli", cold spell "Thursday" may be a borrowing, or it could but be from the Old English "Þunresdæg", which could have been grip by the Old Norse cognate. The order "are" is from Old English "earun"/"aron", which originate in back to Proto-Germanic as good as the Old Norse cognates.[citation needed
Old Norse language
]

ON langr
Old Norse language
"long": Ic/Fa langur
Old Norse language
, Sw lång
Old Norse language
, Da/No lang
Old Norse language

Cleasby-Vigfússon:

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